What Makes Exploitation Wrongful? Exploitation is among the most basic ways in which people can wrong one another. Despite this, there is still no consensus on what makes it wrong-ful. Various philosophical accounts have been proposed, yet all of them seem to disappoint in one of two ways. They either capture someclearly wrongful instances of exploitation but failto appreciate others. Or else they capture allwrongful exploitation but equally condemn some actions notplausibly described as wrongful. In other words, existing analyses of exploitation either under-produce or over-produce what seem to be the required moral judgments.
Border Disputes: Recent Debates along the Perception–Cognition Border
The distinction between perception and cognition frames countless debates in philosophy and cognitive science. But what, if anything, does this distinction actually amount to? In this introductory article, we summarize recent work on this question. We first briefly consider the possibility that a perception-cognition border should be eliminated from our scientific ontology, and then introduce and critically examine five positive approaches to marking a perception–cognition border, framed in terms of phenomenology, revisability, modularity, format, and stimulus-dependence.
Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813–1855) was an astonishingly prolific writer whose work—almost all of which was written in the 1840s—is difficult to categorize, spanning philosophy, theology, religious and devotional writing, literary criticism, psychology and social critique. Kierkegaard’s mode of philosophizing opposes system-building and owes more in its approach to the ancients, particularly his hero Socrates, though his work also draws strongly and creatively on the Bible and other Christian sources. The opposition to system-building means that Kierkegaard has often been understood as an arch opponent of Hegel, but scholarship in recent decades has challenged and complicated this view, suggesting both that some of Kierkegaard’s central ideas are creative developments of Hegel’s ideas, and that the main target of his critique is certain Danish Hegelians influential in his day, rather than Hegel himself (see especially Stewart 2003 and section 4 below).
The art of rules You walk into an art museum. In the first room there is a huge block of chocolate that someone has chewed on. The sign says not to touch it, but out of the corner of your eye you catch another visitor taking a bite. Further on is a pile of wrapped hard candy, surrounded by viewers. Someone else walks over, takes a candy, unwraps it, and pops it into their mouth. People look around uncertainly. The guard seems indifferent. A few gingerly take a candy from the pile before moving on.
Who Were the French Émigrés? On the Relation Between Émigré and Refugee Studies The c. 150,000 émigrés leaving revolutionary France after 1789 and throughout the 1790s were the largest group of political migrants within the Age of Revolutions. Their number and their distribution across all of Europe and the Atlantic world but also the Ottoman Empire, India, or Australia significantly contributed to making this Age of Revolutions an Age of Refugees or an Age of Emigrations. Over the last 30 years, and even more so in the last decade, research on French émigrés – though they are still far from being a mainstream topic – has considerably intensified as well as broadened geographically, politically, and socially. This contribution sketches out how a closer dialogue between émigré and refugee studies provides fresh perspectives on the French emigration decentering it from a specifically French conceptual and historiographical heritage.
Some Thoughts about the Ocean and the Universe In many ancient creation myths, everything was born of a great cosmic ocean with no beginning and no end, lapping matter and spirit into life. In the cosmogony of classical physics, a partial differential equation known as the wave equation describes how water waves ripple the ocean, how seismic waves ripple rock, how gravitational waves ripple the fabric of spacetime. In quantum physics, a probability amplitude known as the wave function describes the behavior and properties of particles at the quantum scale. Virginia Woolf described the relationship between consciousness and creativity as “a wave in the mind.”
Luca Dellanna on Risk, Ruin, and Ergodicity Author and consultant Luca Dellanna talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about the importance of avoiding ruin when facing risk. Along the way Dellanna makes understandable the arcane concept of ergodicity and shows the importance of avoiding ruin in every day life.
On Creativity This May we’ve been making a special effort to spotlight your creativity. We asked Getty visitors what keeps them going, shared a playlist of inspiring music, and posed the question on our social media channels to find out what gets your creativity flowing. And for most of you, creativity is an essential part of living.