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NeuroBlogs Daily Weekend

Vexed Amusement

Where bundled ambition tugs sentiments,
Cornering quiets objectivity.
Its cruel urgency sorts dyad remnants
To envision cages carved from allure
As if preening hangs curiosity
From pedestals encircling demur.

Andy Adkins

Spoken Turns

Steadfast tongues spend voids on memories
In conscious rhythms linking histories
With thoughts willed in place by impermanence.
Time lengthens and shortens their convenience
As forgotten resistance to hazards.
The journey to meaning rolls out in yards
To exhaust & retire bygone tumults
Separating tears from smiling results.

Andy Adkins

Daylight Risks

Darkened resemblance awakened columns
Appearing between cover-grown fountains
happily arranged as sticky meadows.
Entwined appetites smother adorned ease.
First climbing curls entangling canopies,
Then falling fattened by warm innocence
To the round gallops accomplishing age
Like quick stop reminders strung atop clouds.

Andy Adkins

Unpotted Anxiety

Scavengers devour survival forewords.
Their cutaways brighten lashed reflection
With groaning banners in tongue sown courtyards.
Wild uproar sounds unruly audition
From fast distressed lips as woeful prelude.
Forlorn wisdom is a contradiction
Fathering misguided ineptitude
Unsweetened by eloquent courtesy.
In it pale moments languish thoughtlessly
‘Till adroit learning garlands destiny.

Andy Adkins

From Harbor to Horizon

Fond companions nest brutality between clouds
On sharp tacks copied by time & sails.
Moonlit & sun-worn until murmuring slowed,
Sympathetic travelers aroused swells
To shower and balm grief with turbulent praise.
Like conspicuous torrents,
Mercy steamed wantonness overboard
Avoiding prow loss, misdirection, and puzzlements
Where biography compasses precise stewards.

Andy Adkins

Landscape Resistance

From towered raiments
Youth doubled elliptic paces
Magnify common identity
To separately question memories
Of frozen eternity.

Narrow fools shuffle hungry winds
And graze flowered mortality
As quickly fading passengers.

Ugly combs, afterward,
Abruptly mumble remnants
With toiled births and blinding affection
Like persistent habits to cloud beginnings.

Andy Adkins

Guarded Prompts

Wavering fires hurried rust bound silence
to delight thunder and tremble ashes.
Their unkempt madness puzzle and forsake reason
like tear-swept thorns quickly forgotten.
Between indefinite promises
cleverness jealously laments unbridged wonder.
Embellishing sighs brush and contrapose renewal.
Deserts learn green abundance from seasoned joy.
When fallen, ascend as neighbors
until butterflies flicker comprehension.

Andy Adkins

Polyphenols, Mitochondria, Glial Cells & Neurodegenrative Pathway Studies (draft)

I spent a great deal of time this past week investigating the organic chemistry dynamics of the ACS study Mechanistic Insights into Polyphenols’ Aggregation Inhibition of α-Synuclein and Related Peptides. This study only examined the impact of resveratrol & gallic acid on the aggregation of α-synuclein & its results showed that rather than disrupting α-synuclein aggregation the polyphenols merely became weakening elements of a broadened sheet. Importantly, the narrow scope of this research excluded consideration of whether the toxicity to glial cells of this disease causing protein was lessened & their dutiful activities excited by the studied polyphenols.

Here I am interested in the vitality of glial mitochondria & their susceptiblity to problematic exposure mitophagy which requires having evidence of how the citric acid cycle for its energy production (ATP reservoir on/off switch) is affected by disease conditons.

…. more to come (Creative Commons image uploads await discussion & pairings)

Six types of gliocytes in the central and the peripheral nervous system: oligodendrocyte, astrocyte, ependymal cell, microglia, Schwann and satellite cell.
Ribosome during protein synthesis. The Interaction of a Ribosome with mRNA. Process of initiation of translation

Axial section through mid-brain. (Schematic.) (Testut.) 1. Corpora quadrigemina. 2. Cerebral aqueduct. 3. Central gray stratum. 4. Interpeduncular space. 5. Sulcus lateralis. 6. Substantia nigra. 7. Red nucleus of tegmentum. 8. Oculomotor nerve, with 8’, its nucleus of origin. a. Lemniscus (in blue) with a’ the medial lemniscus and a” the lateral lemniscus. b. Medial longitudinal fasciculus. c. Raphé. d. Temporopontine fibers. e. Portion of medial lemniscus, which runs to the lentiform nucleus and insula. f. Cerebrospinal fibers. g. Frontopontine fibers.

Brainstem nuclei involved in human emotion. (A) Sagittal view and (B) Coronal view. DR, Dorsal Raphe; LC, Locus coeruleus; LDT, Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus; Mb, Midbrain; MR, Median raphe; P, Pons; PAG, Periaqueductal gray; PBC, Parabrachial nuclear complex; PPN, Pedunculopontine nucleus; VTA, Ventral tegmental area. The substantia nigra and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius are not shown to optimize visibility of the other structures.

New Frontiers in Parkinson’s Research and Care 


1. Zecca L. et all. Substantia nigra neuromelanin: structure, synthesis, and molecular behaviour. Molecular Pathology 2001 Dec; 54(6): 414–418. 

2. Friedrich et al. Cell specifc quantitative iron mapping on brain slices by immuno-µPIXE in healthy elderly and Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathology Communications 2021 9:47

3. Haddad A et al. Biochemistry, Citric Acid Cycle. StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan

4. Metrani R et al. Comparative Metabolomics Profiling of Polyphenols, Nutrients and Antioxidant Activities of Two Red Onion (Allium cepa L.) Cultivars. Plants (Basel). 2020 Sep; 9(9): 1077.

5. Malpartida A et al. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Mitophagy in Parkinson’s Disease: From Mechanism to Therapy. Trends in Biochemical Science. 2021 Apr; 46(4): 329-343

6. Festa B et al. Microglial-to-neuronal CCR5 signaling regulates autophagy in neurodegeneration. Neuron. 2023 Apr.

7. Sukhorukov V et al. Impaired Mitophagy in Neurons and Glial Cells during Aging and Age-Related Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021 Sep 22(19).

8. Wong E et al. Mitophagy Transcriptome: Mechanistic Insights into Polyphenol-Mediated Mitophagy. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017 May.

9. Shields H et al. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on Lifespan: A Comprehensive Review of Comparative and Experimental Studies. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2021 Feb 9.

Week in Review

My approach for this website remains mostly unchanged. I will continue providing links to noteworthy open access brain science & humanities research supplemented by lectures, podcasts, & well-used french & spanish language audio & articles; all of which now wil be stacked on a newest first to best of basis during the week rather than statically archived together on a daily basis. On weekends, in addition, I will variously blog book reviews, article discussions, & lecture highlights.